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Study of the Prevalence of Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Their Relation to Disease Progression in Chronic Kidney Disease

1 Department of Cardiology, Santokba Durlabhji Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Santokba Durlabhji Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Nitin Kansal,
Department of Cardiology, Santokba Durlabhji Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Bhawani Singh Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiae.jiae_44_20

Context: Study of the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities and there relation to disease progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aims: Study correlation of echocardiographic changes and CKD progression. Settings and Design: A prospective, cross-sectional, observational, analytical study, where we performed complete echocardiographic evaluation of patients with CKD stage II–V. We compared various echocardiographic parameters to predict the progression of CKD. Subjects and Methods: Ninety CKD patients stage II–V presenting to our hospital from November 2016 to December 2017 were included in the study. A complete echocardiographic evaluation was done. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), systolic and diastolic dysfunction using Doppler indices at mitral inflow, left atrial volume, speckle tracking, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were studied. Results: Patients were age and sex matched in all the groups with a male preponderance. Forty-one patients (45.56%) were diabetic and 74 (82.22%) were hypertensive. The prevalence of hypertension increased from 66.67% to 89.29% as CKD stage progressed from stage II to stage V. There were significant echocardiographic abnormalities seen in CKD patients. The severity increased with worsening of the stages of CKD. LVH and early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocity ratio progression was statistically significant when stage V was compared to stage II. Left atrial volume, mitral early diastolic to late diastolic velocity ratio, maximum tricuspid regurgitation (TRmax) velocity, and diastolic dysfunction prevalence were significantly raised in stage IV and stage V compared to stage II. Only GLS showed statistical significance between stage II to stage III, stage IV and stage V and thus predicting progression of CKD. Conclusions: LVH, dilated left atrium, abnormal GLS, TRmax, diastolic dysfunction, and related tissue Doppler imaging parameters correlate with worsening renal function. GLS was the only parameter showing significant difference between stage II and stage III. This can be used as a novel modality for detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction in CKD.

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