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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 171-175

Value of Speckle Tracking Echocardiography as a Predictor of the Deleterious Effect of Right Ventricular Pacing on Left Ventricular Function


Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Date of Submission20-Mar-2020
Date of Decision04-May-2020
Date of Acceptance21-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication19-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Samir Rafla
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiae.jiae_11_20

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  Abstract 

Background: Pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy (PICM) is reported in different articles but with variable incidence. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the validity of speckle tracking echocardiography as a predictor of the deleterious effect of right ventricular (RV) pacing on left ventricular (LV) function, using two-dimensional guided global and segmental longitudinal strain. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with conventional indications for permanent pacemaker implantation were studied; they were classified to Group A (37 = 74%) patients who didn't show a significant reduction of ejection fraction (EF) (>10%) and Group B (13 = 26%) represent patients who showed a significant reduction of EF. Group C constituted 25 healthy persons (control group). We defined PICM when EF is reduced >10%. Results: The incidence of pacemaker-induced ventricular dysfunction was 26%. Statistical analysis revealed that left atrial volume index (LAVI), global longitudinal strain (GLS), native-QRS duration, and ischemic heart disease were significant predictors of reduction of LV function, however, on multivariate regression analysis, only the LAVI and GLS were independent predictors of reduction of LVEF after permanent pacing. Conclusions: Speckle tracking echocardiography is a new, unique and evolving tool to assess the myocardial deformation which can detect LV systolic dysfunction much earlier than can be reflected in LVEF. The importance of defining predictors is to predict whom patient will be at risk for the deleterious effect of RV pacing on LV function, and who will need observation with possible upgrading to biventricular pacing.

Keywords: Global longitudinal strain, pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy, right ventricular pacing, speckle tracking


How to cite this article:
Rafla S, Zaki A, Aboelhoda A, Sappaq M, Magdy G. Value of Speckle Tracking Echocardiography as a Predictor of the Deleterious Effect of Right Ventricular Pacing on Left Ventricular Function. J Indian Acad Echocardiogr Cardiovasc Imaging 2020;4:171-5

How to cite this URL:
Rafla S, Zaki A, Aboelhoda A, Sappaq M, Magdy G. Value of Speckle Tracking Echocardiography as a Predictor of the Deleterious Effect of Right Ventricular Pacing on Left Ventricular Function. J Indian Acad Echocardiogr Cardiovasc Imaging [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 26];4:171-5. Available from: https://www.jiaecho.org/text.asp?2020/4/2/171/292619


  Introduction Top


Pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy (PICM) is reported in different articles but with variable incidence depending on definitions, methods, and substrates. Multiple studies had been done to assess the validity of global longitudinal strain (GLS) for detecting subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and its role as a predictor of the outcome on different cardiac conditions, including the effect of right ventricular (RV) pacing on LV function.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19]

Aim of the work

The aim was to assess the validity of speckle tracking echocardiography as a predictor of the deleterious effect of RV pacing on LV function.


  Methods Top


The study included fifty patients scheduled for permanent RV pacing and 25 healthy controls served as a control group for the echocardiographic measurements.

Inclusion criteria: Patients with conventional indications for permanent RV pacing and ejection fraction (EF) ≥50%. Exclusion criteria: (1) Baseline EF of <50%, (2) patients with RV pacing <40% of the time on follow-up, (3) acute coronary syndrome and/or coronary revascularization within 3 months before enrollment to 6 months after enrollment, (4) new-onset myocarditis during follow-up, and (5) atrial fibrillation.

All patients were subjected to the following: (1) Sign an informed consent after explanation of procedures and possible complications to the patient; (2) preimplantation assessment: history taking and clinical examination; NYHA functional class; resting, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG): QRS duration, morphology, and axis; (3) echocardiography:[2],[7]

  • LVEF: LVEF (modified Simpson's method)
  • LVEDD: LV end-diastolic dimension by using M-mode. LVEDV: LV end diastolic volume by using the biplane disk summation method. LVESD: LV end systolic dimension by using M-mode. LVESV: LV end systolic volume by using the biplane disk summation method.


    • Left atrial dimensions and volume and by using the biplane method. Mitral valve regurgitation evaluation if present
    • Peak systolic GLS using speckle tracking echocardiography, ECG-gated images were obtained in apical long-axis, four- and two-chamber views at the frame rate of 50–70/s and stored digitally. EF was calculated from tracing the endocardial border. Segmental strain was presented as a bull-eye map and GLS was automatically calculated [2],[5]
    • Implantation data: Pacing mode, site of RV lead implantation
    • Follow-up: Follow-up done after 6 months for the assessment of (a) NYHA functional classification; (b) evidence of HF by clinical examination; (c) resting, 12-lead ECG: QRS duration, morphology, and axis; (d) device interrogation for assessment of the percentage of RV pacing.


(a) Echocardiography after 6 months of implantation: LVEF, LVEDD, LVEDV, LVESD, LVESV left atrial volume, and dimensions, Mitral valve regurgitation evaluation if present. (b) After follow-up, the patients were classified to Groups A and B according to follow-up EF. Group A represents patients who did not show a significant reduction of EF at follow-up and Group B represents patients who showed a reduction of EF >10% from baseline measurement.

The ultrasonography system: Philips IE33

Statistical analysis of the study data:[20] Data were fed to the computer and analyzed using the IBM SPSS software package version 20.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The used tests were: (1) Chi-square test, (2) Fisher's exact or Monte Carlo correction, (3) paired t-test, and (4) ANOVA with repeated measures.


  Results Top


Patients were classified at 6-month follow-up post pacemaker implantation for Group A and B, Group A (37 patients (74%)) represents patients who did not show a significant reduction of (EF) from baseline measurement and Group B (13 patients [26%]) represents patients who showed reduction of EF >10% from baseline measurement as described below: Group C represents the control group of healthy individuals with no pacemaker implantation [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3].
Table 1: Comparison between the two studied groups according to change on ejection fraction (%); end-systolic dimension; end diastolic dimension; end-systolic volume

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Table 2: Comparison between the three studied groups according to global longitudinal strain

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Table 3: Comparison between the two studied groups according to L-AT volume

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Type of pacing and site of pacing

  • Cardiac pacing data: Indication: Sick sinus syndrome 5 (10%); AV block 45 (90%)
  • Type of pacing: DDD 45% (90%); VVI 5 (10%)
  • Site of pacing: Apical 49 (98%); septal 1 (2%).


In the current study, we used the term pacemaker induced ventricular dysfunction (PIVD) to represent the deleterious effect of RV pacing on LV function, and it was defined as the reduction of EF >10% from baseline. The incidence of PIVD on our study was 26%, but also 10% of our cohort showed a reduction of EF >10% to reach EF <50% [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4].
Figure 1: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, apical three-chamber view. Patient number 23

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Figure 2: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, apical four-chamber view. Patient number 23

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Figure 3: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, apical two-chamber view. Patient number 23

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Figure 4: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, peak systolic strain. Patient number 23

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As regard age and gender, there was no statistically significant difference. The prevalence of different diseases was not significant, except for the prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD), which was more in the reduction group.

The baseline EF mean values were 65.47 ± 5.36, 64.15 ± 6.49, and 62.36 ± 3.29 for Groups A, B, and C, respectively; there was no significant difference between the three studied groups.

As regards the baseline ESD, there was no significant difference and at follow-up, there was a significant difference. As regards the baseline EDD, there was no significant difference and at follow-up, there was no significant difference between Groups A and B.

As regards the baseline left atrial volume index (LAVI), there was a significant difference. At follow-up the LAVI values were higher than the baseline in both groups. The presence of mitral regurgitation was not significant statistically.

There was a significant difference between the three studied groups in GLS. The segmental strain values of cases were smaller than the control group. In addition, the patient's segmental strain values showed a significant statistical difference between Group A and B on the API, MIS, BI, BIL, BIS, MI, MAS, MA, MAL, and BAL segments.

As regards the indications, type of pacing, and site of pacing, there was no significant statistical difference. As regard the percentage of pacing, there was a significant difference.

There was a significant difference in native QRS duration. The paced QRS duration did not show a significant difference.

As regards arrhythmias, there was no significant difference. As regards the medical treatment used during the period of research, it did not show significant difference statistically. The NYHA functional class did not show a significant difference at baseline, but it showed a significant difference at follow-up. As regards the clinical evidence of heart failure, there was no statistical difference at baseline, but at follow-up, only the lower limb edema showed significant difference statistically.

Follow-up was done for 6 months at least post pacemaker implantation in Groups A and B and also Group C (the control group).

Univariate logistic regression analysis for the statistically significant predictors revealed that LAVI, GLS, Native-QRS duration, and IHD were significant predictors of reduction of LV function, however on multivariate regression analysis only the LAVI and GLS were independent predictors of reduction of LVEF after permanent pacing. Prevalence of IHD was more in the reduction group, this is an explanation of the higher percentage of deterioration of EF in ischemic patients. IHD total 12 patients in the 50 studied patients, 7 out of the 13 EF deteriorated (53.8%), P < 0.003.

The NYHA functional class did not show a significant difference at baseline but it showed a significant difference at follow-up. As regards the clinical evidence of heart failure, there was no statistical difference at baseline but at follow-up, only the LL edema showed significant difference statistically.

The importance of defining predictors, is to predict who will be at risk for the deleterious effect of RV pacing on LV function, and who will need more close observation and follow-up with possible upgrading to biventricular pacing, if the patient showed a significant reduction of EF and fulfilled the criteria for upgrading, to reduce hospitalization and improve symptoms and cardiac performance.[19],[21]


  Discussion Top


The baseline characteristics of our study population are not significantly different from other studies.[9],[15],[16]

Incidence and definitions of pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy

The published articles have shown variable incidence values of PICM, based on different definitions used to identify the syndrome. The most commonly used definitions included a reduction in LVEF ≥10% from baseline and resulting LVEF <50% and associated with a high burden of RV pacing unless it is explained by alternative causes of cardiomyopathy.[22],[23],[24],[25],[26]

In 2016, Kiehl et al. analyzed 823 patients with permanent pacemaker (PPM). The incidence of PICM was (12.3%) over a mean follow-up period of 4.3 ± 3.9 years, with a mean LVEF (58.1 ± 5.4 vs. 33.7% ±7.4%) in patients with PICM at follow-up.[16]

In 2018 Kim et al., studied 130 patients with complete AVB with baseline mean LVEF (65% ±10%), who underwent PPM implantation between 2001 and 2015. PICM was defined as >10% decrease in LVEF, with a resultant LVEF <50%. The incidence of PICM was (16.1%) over a mean duration of the follow-up period (4.7 ± 3.5 years). The postimplant mean LVEF at PICM group was (65 ± 10 vs. 31% ± 8%).[15]

Left atrial volume index

According to Kim et al.'s study, there was no significant difference in the left atrial diameter between the groups of patients who showed PICM and those who did not show it at baseline or at follow-up.[24]

Mitral incompetence

In accordance with our study, Zou [11] reported that mitral incompetence was not a statistically significant predictor of PICM.

Global longitudinal strain

Univariate Cox regression analysis was done, which revealed that GLS is a significant predictor of PIVD (P = 0.

002), on multivariate analysis it revealed that GLS is an independent predictor of PIVD (P = 0.040).

In 2018, Kim et al. retrospectively studied 131 patients who underwent PPM implantation for AV block. The incidence of PICM was 25.8%, with a reduction in mean LVEF from 67.1% to 40.1% over a mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. In multivariate analysis, LV GLS (−21.1 ± 4.2 vs. −18.2 ± 4.2 for no PICM and PICM, respectively, P = 0.001).[15]

Segmental speckle tracking values

According to Algazzar et al.[27] they found a significant reduction of apical segment strain values after pacing and they found a positive correlation with the reduction of GLS after 6 months of baseline measurement and they reached to a conclusion that RV apical pacing induces a significant reduction of apical, relative apical and septal regional strain more than RV septal pacing.


  Conclusions Top


  1. Speckle tracking echocardiography is a new, unique, and evolving tool to assess the myocardial deformation function, and also a strong predictor method even with subclinical LV dysfunction that could not be assessed by traditional methods
  2. GLS is an independent measure of the deleterious effect of RV pacing on LV function even with normal EF measurement prior to pacing
  3. Patients with GLS ≤ -16 have a particular risk for developing pacemaker induced LV dysfunction with a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 51.35%
  4. The left atrial volume index could be defined as an independent predictor of pacemaker-induced LV dysfunction, with cut off value >32 ml/m2.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

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Algazzar AS, Moharram MA, Katta AA, Soltan GM, Abd Elaziz WF. Early effects of right ventricular pacing on the left ventricle in single-chamber and dual-chamber pacemakers. Menoufia Med J 2016;29:52-9.  Back to cited text no. 27
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