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An unusual complication of perimembranous ventricular septal defect with infective endocarditis: Vegetations obstructing right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary valve
K Venkatesan Kongunattan, N Swaminathan, S Venkatesan
January-April 2018, 2(1):75-77
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is usually diagnosed in childhood. In adults, it is less often diagnosed due to spontaneous closure of some VSD's during the early years of childhood. Perimembranous VSD is a defect seen in the upper part of the septum and near the valves occurring in nearly 75% of patients. Although spontaneous closure has been reported in VSD, with about 30%–40% closing before 2 years of age and the remainder of cases closing by about 4 years of age, it is rare for VSD's to close after 8 years of age. Most of the small VSD's will remain asymptomatic, but one of the long-term complications of a small VSD is the development of infective endocarditis (IE). Most of the studies in adults with small VSD's and IE had many complications such as arrhythmias, subaortic and sub-pulmonic stenosis, and exercise intolerance. Here, we report a patient with small perimembranous VSD who was asymptomatic in childhood but suddenly become symptomatic due to development of IE. In this patient, the vegetations were large, multiple chunky linear vegetations partly sealing the VSD defect and also occluding the right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary valve mimicking severe pulmonary stenosis, which was managed conservatively.
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Doppler evaluation of hepatic vein flow
Sita Ram Mittal
January-April 2018, 2(1):53-66
Hepatic vein (HV) flow pattern closely correlates with pressure changes in the right atrium. Normally, there are two forward flow waves – systolic and diastolic. Diastolic wave is slightly smaller than systolic wave. Three reversal waves can be seen – late systolic, mid-diastolic, and third during right atrial contraction. Normally, forward wave velocities increase during inspiration. Reversal waves are slightly more prominent during expiration. Systolic wave is diminished in atrial fibrillation, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, and tricuspid regurgitation. When these pathologies are severe or they coexist, systolic wave may reverse. Diastolic wave is diminished in tricuspid stenosis and impaired relaxation of the right ventricle as seen in right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular ischemia, or infarction. Diastolic flow reversal wave becomes prominent in restrictive cardiomyopathy and pericardial constriction. Reversal wave during right atrial contraction is absent in atrial fibrillation. It is diminished or absent when compliance of HVs is decreased due to diseases of liver parenchyma. This reversal wave is prominent in each cardiac cycle in tricuspid stenosis with sinus rhythm and in patients with right ventricular hypertrophy. It is intermittently prominent in the presence of ventricular ectopics and complete atrioventricular block.
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The Indian Academy of Echocardiography practice guideline for the performance of transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of a patient with cerebrovascular stroke
Nitin Burkule, Satish C Govind, Srikanth Sola, Manish Bansal
January-April 2018, 2(1):1-18
Ischemic stroke remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac sources of embolism account for almost up to 40% of all the ischemic strokes. Accordingly, echocardiography is an important investigation in the evaluation of clinically suspected cardioembolic stroke or cryptogenic stroke. Both transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are complementary to each other for this purpose. However, because of its superior resolution and the ability to image structures that are the most likely sources of cardioembolism (e.g., left atrial appendage), TEE is the preferred imaging modality in the cardiac evaluation of stroke. This document describes the systematic TEE evaluation of the patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of either cryptogenic stroke or cardioembolic stroke.
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ASE Statement on Protection of Patients and Echocardiography Service Providers During the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak
Contributors: James Kirkpatrick, Carol Mitchell, Cynthia Taub, Smadar Kort, Judy Hung, Madhav Swaminathan
January-April 2020, 4(1):137-143
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