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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 53-66

Doppler evaluation of hepatic vein flow

Department of Cardiology, Mittal Hospital and Research Center, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sita Ram Mittal
XI/101, Brahmpuri, Ajmer, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiae.jiae_80_17

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Hepatic vein (HV) flow pattern closely correlates with pressure changes in the right atrium. Normally, there are two forward flow waves – systolic and diastolic. Diastolic wave is slightly smaller than systolic wave. Three reversal waves can be seen – late systolic, mid-diastolic, and third during right atrial contraction. Normally, forward wave velocities increase during inspiration. Reversal waves are slightly more prominent during expiration. Systolic wave is diminished in atrial fibrillation, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, and tricuspid regurgitation. When these pathologies are severe or they coexist, systolic wave may reverse. Diastolic wave is diminished in tricuspid stenosis and impaired relaxation of the right ventricle as seen in right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular ischemia, or infarction. Diastolic flow reversal wave becomes prominent in restrictive cardiomyopathy and pericardial constriction. Reversal wave during right atrial contraction is absent in atrial fibrillation. It is diminished or absent when compliance of HVs is decreased due to diseases of liver parenchyma. This reversal wave is prominent in each cardiac cycle in tricuspid stenosis with sinus rhythm and in patients with right ventricular hypertrophy. It is intermittently prominent in the presence of ventricular ectopics and complete atrioventricular block.

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